Vitamin d 3 is made in the skin and modified in the liver and kidney to form the active metabolite 125 dihydroxyvitamin d 3 calcitriol calcitriol binds to a nuclear receptor the vitamin d receptor vdr and activates vdr to recruit cofactors to form a transcriptional complex that binds to vitamin d response elements in the promoter region of target genes. Vitamin d and kidney diseasepdf actions of vitamin d recent clinical developments tissues in the body express vitamin d receptors as patients with kidney disease cannot convert 25 . Vitamin d has been recently associated with several renal cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases beyond mineral metabolism and bone health this is due in part to widespread expression of vitamin d receptor vdr on tissues and cells such as heart kidney immune cells brain and muscle. Vitamin d deficiency appears to be an underestimated risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease evidence from both basic science and clinical studies supports the possible protective role of vitamin d beyond its effect on mineral metabolism toxicity of pharmacologic doses of active vitamin d metabolites in particular calcitriol is mainly due to the . Vitamin d receptor agonists kidney diseases by theodoros eleftheriadis 9781616688608 available at book depository with free delivery worldwide
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